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TOC (Table Of Contents)
[ INTRODUCTION ] FORBIDDEN ARCHAEOLOGY MAINSTREAM ARCHAEOLOGY [ HISTORY ] [ TIMELINE ] [ BIBLIOGRAPHY ] [ RELATED WEBPAGES ] [ OTHER SUBJECTS ]
"Archaeology studies human history from the development of the first stone tools in eastern Africa 3.4 million years ago up until recent decades. It is of most importance for learning about prehistoric societies, when there are no written records for historians to study, and which makes up over 99% of total human history, from the Palaeolithic until the advent of literacy in any given society. Archaeology has various different goals, which range from studying human evolution to cultural evolution and understanding culture history."
 Wylie, Alison (2002), Thinking from things: essays in the philosophy of archaeology, Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 31, ISBN 0-520-22361-6
 Renfrew and Bahn (2004 :13)
 McPherron, S. P., Z. Alemseged, C. W. Marean, J. G. Wynn, D. Reed, D. Geraads, R. Bobe, and H. A. Bearat. 2010. Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia. Nature 466:857-860
There is an alternate form of archaeology known as "Forbidden Archaeology" which tends to focus on anomolies that questions the whole accepted history of the homo sapien species.
For example, there's the question of just how old the Sphinx is. Traditional Archaeology dates it at around 3 to 5 thousand years old, at the most.
NOVA: "How do we know how old the pyramids are?"
LEHNER: "It's not a direct approach. There are people coming from a New Age perspective who want the pyramids to be very old, much older than Egyptologists are willing to agree. There are people who want them to be built by extraterrestrials, or inspired by extraterrestrials, or built by a lost civilization whose records are otherwise unknown to us. And similar ideas are said about the Sphinx. And in response to the evidence that we have for the time in which the pyramids are built, the criticism is often leveled at scholars that they're only dealing with circumstantial information. It's all just circumstantial. And sometimes we smile at that, because virtually all information in archaeology is circumstantial."
Another thing about
"From Cave Paintings to the Internet... "
"The Epic of Gilgamesh Circa 1,300 BCE - 1,000 BCE
"The most complete and 'standard' Akkadian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the earliest known works of literary fiction, was written in standard Babylonian, a dialect of Akkadian that was only used for literary purposes, and compiled out of older legends by Sin-liqe-unninni sometime between 1300 and 1000 BCE.
"The Epic was recorded on twelve cuneiform tablets. These were among about 1200 tablets from the library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh discovered by British archaeologist Austen Henry Layard in 1849, and noticed in this database. The deciphering of the twelve tablets in 1872 by George Smith at the British Museum caused this epic to be rediscovered by the world. The tablets are preserved in the British Museum."
History of Archaeology
"Lesson Objectives: Understand the sociopolitical context of the development of archaeology.
"Much of classical archaeology began as the accumulation of treasures by colonial powers. Giovanni Belzoni [show his picture and others to illustrate all this] was a strongman in a circus before he began hauling around stone monuments yanked from Egyptian tombs for the British government in the nineteenth century, and Lord Elgin grabbed sculptures from the Parthenon in Athens for the British Museum. Most museum collections are from looted sites where proper archaeological excavation has not been done. Now we supposedly know better and realize that taking an artifact out of its context destroys its scientific and archaeological value. But the image of Indiana Jones running out with the golden idol only is not too far from 1930s archaeology in many other countries."
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